Drupal Update. How to Properly Take Care of It?
Many people probably wonder why system creators recommend regular updating to the latest version and why we are informed at every step by pop-ups that the latest patch or other fix has been released, sometimes changing only a few lines of code in the software. Using Drupal as an example, I'll try to explain why it's so crucial. Although the system works properly, it can contain many errors and surprise you with unstable work.
Why should you update your systems?
The first and most important reason why you should carry out regular updates (including the ones related to Drupal) is the security of the system itself. If the authors or the community discover a software flaw, with an update they can immediately fix it and protect users from threats (such as hacker attacks) that lurk at every step.
In the case of Drupal, new versions of the software not only protect you against dangerous attacks, but may also provide new functionalities. Usually options of this type appear in the "major" versions, such as 8.2, 8.3. You can check the update plan at any time on the roadmap on the Drupal website.
System personalization is important for every user and thanks to an update you can gain new modules or additional options that'll make your work easier. It's also worth keeping in mind that regular updates protect you from unnecessary programming work in the future, because the older your Drupal version is, the more difficult it is to install the latest update. Another advantage is the continuity of the webpage's operation, because you avoid time-consuming failures and minimise the risk of unstable system operation.
When is it worth performing an update?
As we've already mentioned, it's best to perform updates on a regular basis. As soon as you receive a notification about a new version or find out about it from another source, you should plan that update in the near future.
In the case of Drupal, updates are released approximately twice a month. You should also remember that monitoring the date until which support for a given version of Drupal is provided is sometimes a matter of several years. Therefore, you should bear in mind that every version has its "end of life" planned, and usually a migration to the newer version should be performed when updating. If you want to protect your system from hacker attacks and downtime, as well as keep the website running smoothly, you should remember to always use the latest version (or the one that is supported).
In addition, there are also updates of the modules themselves (depending on which ones are currently installed) and the PHP itself. In the case of modules, you don't always have to act so quickly, because when they are released, the information about what exactly has been fixed and who is at risk is provided. If the given problem doesn't concern you, you can do it at a time that's more convenient for you. You should pay attention in the case of PHP - it's worth acting quickly in this case, especially if the new release fixes security holes from the previous version.
To sum up, when you don't have time to install the latest update (such situations, unfortunately, sometimes happen), try to use a version that's currently supported. In the case of modules, you can take care of the ones you use most often first. This will ensure stress-free work and the certainty that you'll always be able to count on quick help in the event of unexpected errors.
Drupal update - upgrading to a higher version
A Drupal update within the same major version usually runs smoothly and doesn't cause many bugs. However, if you change major versions of Drupal, updating may be much more difficult.
Upgrading from Drupal 7 to 8
The update from version 7 to 8 can't be performed automatically, unfortunately. In most cases, you need to write the page from scratch. Drupal 8 has significantly changed the way content and configuration are stored in the database. Therefore, the database and other files must be transferred to the new page based on version 8. The configuration data include content types, user roles, and field definitions. You must also remember that not all modules have automatic update paths. Manual code tampering or custom migration will sometimes be required.
The structure of the themes has changed compared to version 7. This is another thing that needs to be rebuilt for the content to display properly in version 8. To facilitate this task, it's best to obtain the appropriate tools from the official Drupal website:
- Migrate module - API available in the core,
- Migrate Drupal module - provides the classes necessary to perform the migration,
- Migrate Upgrade module - provides a user interface during the migration process,
- Migrate Plus module - contains core Drupal functionalities (XML, JSOS, SQL database support).
Another thing that'll help you migrate is an analysis of the Drupal modules. You need to determine which modules are most important to you (preferably in the form of a list), and whether their installation on Drupal 8 is really necessary. Also, remember to update Drupal 7 to the latest version. This'll make it easier to transfer the configuration and content data. The last step before the migration is to back up your current page, based on version 7. If anything goes in the wrong direction, you'll have a guarantee that you won’t lose the page and data.
Upgrading Drupal 7 to 8 is a complicated operation, but it brings many benefits.
- Lots of new features and modules have been added to the Drupal 8 core, e.g. Media and Layout Builder.
- Drupal 8 has access to more modern technologies - it uses more modern tools that facilitate an editor's work. Thanks to this, the configuration is easier and better adapted to people who are just starting their adventure with this CMS.
- In Drupal 8, part of the core is the Views module, which easily presents the added content to you in many different ways. In addition, the main page itself is a separate view, therefore you can easily manage individual elements.
- The core also includes the modules that provide new field types (such as phone, e-mail, link, meta tags, entity reference and contact forms).
In addition, Drupal 8 is much better suited for larger pages than Drupal 7, because it can be optimized (it has a much more advanced cache system, controlled by tags and contexts), which makes it smooth and fast to work with. It's based on the components of the Symfony framework, which is considered in the world of PHP development to be the best solution for creating complex applications.
Upgrading from Drupal 8 to 9
Drupal 9 doesn't differ significantly from version 8. One important piece of information is the upgrade to Symfony 4, which ensures compliance with the latest standards - thanks to this you can program in accordance with the latest specifications. Besides, Drupal 9 is an improved variant of the previous version. Some of the old code has been removed, Symfony and Twig have been updated, so you can be sure that the system will always work effectively and without any problems. The quick and easy update between releases (i.e. switching from 8 to 9) has also been kept. Also, the modules' updates will not require many additional changes. You should also keep in mind that Drupal 9 uses PHP 7.3 or higher versions.
The migration to the latest version will certainly require you to verify the application's code. You should remove the items marked as "deprecated" from it. You can use the drupal-check tool for this, which will automatically track down the obsolete code fragments. Then you can proceed with an automated process, the execution time of which depends on the page, and which will provide you with the latest version of the software.
How to test the system after the update?
One of the most important steps you should take after any software update is to test the introduced changes or the entire application or system. There are situations when an update is associated with data loss, system crash or unexpected errors. In the case of Drupal, you can, for example, use smoke tests. They allow you to check whether all subpages are displayed without critical errors. Another option is any visual tests that compare the previous look of the page to the new one. It would also be necessary to verify the operation of individual forms and modules and check whether the data entered on the pages is assigned to the correct fields.
To sum up, you should check the website both visually and functionally. Technically the page should work fine. You can correct minor changes to its appearance later.
Software, whether it is for a web page (as in the case of Drupal) or an operating system or other application, should be updated regularly. This ensures the support of the producer or creators and may protect you from any external attacks. In addition, you often have at your disposal new functions, modules or improvements that can significantly change your comfort of working with a particular system.
If you aren't sure how to update your CMS's version, find out how we can help you with Drupal support.